Dispatches From The Road: The Unaccompanied Children of Uganda’s Refugee Crisis

e

It comes as no surprise that the vast majority of South Sudanese refugees coming into Uganda are women and children. For the past few years trends and data from the region have shown that when violence breaks out, the men stay behind. However, perhaps one of the most heartbreaking and forgotten demographics of this statistic are the unaccompanied minors. Young boys and girls who flee their villages alone, or lose a guardian along the way.

In my trips to refugee camps, and in interviews with relief workers, it became clear that children who left without their families – or lost them along the way – will face a dangerous uphill battle. That’s because, as it was explained to me, they have so few real protections. Refugee aid workers can offer their best of care, but with the sheer numbers of unaccompanied minors flowing over the border, it’s impossible to keep an eye on them all.

And the numbers, I learned, were staggering.

According to the UNHCR, “Children have been separated from their families on an unprecedented scale. Over 34,000 separated or unaccompanied children have been registered, representing 10%, of the total number of refugee children in some of the countries of asylum.” These statistics are staggering from a humanitarian perspective, which UNHCR goes on to point out, “With almost 70% of the refugees from South Sudan and Sudan under the age of 18, both conflicts are nothing less than a war on their children.”

c

Interviews with workers at refugee centers highlight the humanity of refugees – who despite lacking their own resources – often take on unaccompanied children under their wing, at least until they reach Uganda.

Catherine Ntabadde with UNICEF told me that unaccompanied children are targeted first for special care. She says that education tents and a group of rotating psychosocial workers have been deployed in Northern Uganda’s refugee centers and camps. However, unaccompanied minors still face an increased threat of sexual and gender based violence as well as increased risk of exploitative child labour practices.

Aid agencies are working to register these children and ensure that unaccompanied refugees are offered all proper protections. Yet with overflowing camps forcing many refugees to move on a moment’s notice – unaccompanied children can too easily fall through the cracks.

f

The UNHCR says that legal framework and enhanced policy must be enacted to ensure children are well cared for under these refugee programs. It also encourages monitoring and reporting to enhance our current data on the crisis.

Yet on ground participation from local communities, offering some semblance of normal life is a must for recovery. This includes access to schooling, a safe home life and a team of advocates to ensure that the most vulnerable, among an already dispossessed population, have a place to call home.

The People And Their Police

Police in Uganda are facing a narrowing space in local communities with relationships between civilian and officer deteriorating. The Ugandan Police Force is attempting to rehabilitate its image. Yet many feel that unless police actively prosecute their own for wrongdoing, the community outreach means very little.  This short photo essay focuses on the often tenuous relationship between the people, their spaces and their police force.

e

Smoke rises behind a police officer at Makerere University in Kampala, Uganda. Sent into quash protests, police often engage in running battles with students – ending in tear gas and destruction of property.

p1090245

Police officers often make their presence known without actively engaging angry citizens. This method can and does keep violence at bay. However, some citizens say that it also doubles as intimidation against their right to assemble.

p1090602

During the 2016 Presidential Elections both Military Police and local police units conducted heavy patrols throughout Kampala. In some communities there is still considerable anger over what they saw as encroachment on their right to vote. Although this anger is rarely seen in the open, it can manifest in surprising ways. In one instance, a group of boda riders left a man who had been stuck by a vehicle on the road to die after finding out he was a local police officer. Such divisions are often ignored by local leadership.

p1090829-2

Supporters of political opposition leader Kizza Besigye assemble across the street after being denied entrance into his court proceedings. Situations where crowds amass in an “us vs. them” mentality can increase the likelihood of violence between citizen and police officers. Later that day, a number of supporters were arrested after staging an impromptu march down the road.